Abstract: The main purpose of this course is the design of integrated circuits for ultra-low-voltage and ultra-low-power operation. Since the MOS transistor is the basic component of modern electronics, a careful presentation of its basic theory will be given. Instead of the usual approach of furnishing separate analytical formulas for the strong and weak inversion regions of the MOS transistor, we provide simple formulas which are valid in all operating regions, including moderate inversion. This unified design approach, which is particularly suitable for the design in advanced CMOS technologies, allows the insightful exploration of the design space.

The main solution to reduce the energy consumption of electronic circuits is to lower the supply voltage. Theoretically, the minimum supply voltage for a CMOS inverter is 2(ln2)(kT/q) =36 mV at room temperature, as shown by Swanson and Meindl in 1972. In this course we analyze a CMOS Schmitt Trigger circuit and show that it can operate below the Meindl low-voltage limit. In the following, we will show that analog circuits such as rectifiers and oscillators can operate with supply voltages below (kT/q). Finally, some ultra-low-voltage circuits for energy harvesting will be presented.

Course outline:
1 DC and small-signal MOSFET models;
2 ULV CMOS logic circuits;
3 ULV rectifiers;
4 ULV oscillators;
5 ULV energy harvesting circuits.

Biography: Carlos Galup-Montoro studied engineering sciences at the University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay, and electronic engineering at the National Polytechnic School of Grenoble (INPG), France. He received the engineer degree in electronics in 1979 and the Dr. Ing. degree in 1982, both from INPG. Since 1990, he has been a member of the Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, where he is now a Professor. From August 1997 to February 1998 he was a Research Associate with the Analog Mixed Signal Group, Texas A&M University. From August 2008 to July 2009 he was a visiting scholar at the University of California, Berkeley. He is coauthor of the textbooks: “MOSFET Modeling for Circuit Analysis and Design”, World Scientific, 2007 and “CMOS Analog Design Using All-Region MOSFET modeling”, Cambridge University Press, 2010.